How to cite in a research paper

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To confirm your arguments concerning an authoritative source or for a critical analysis of something for a research paper, you should quote.

When quoting, each citation should be accompanied by a reference to the source, the bibliographic description of which should be by the requirements of bibliographic standards. In the case of using someone else’s material without reference to the author and the source of borrowing, the master’s thesis is not allowed to be defended.

Academic etiquette requires accurately reproduce the quoted text, because the slightest distortion of the words of the quoted author may distort the meaning of the words. Only the following deviations are allowed:

  • modernization of spelling and punctuation according to modern rules, if the spelling of words and the placement of punctuation marks are not an individual peculiarity of the author’s style;
  • expanding arbitrarily abbreviated words to full ones with the conclusion of an additional part of the word in brackets;
  • the omission of individual words and phrases in the quotation;
  • change the case of quoted words and phrases to subordinate them to the syntactic structure of the words, where they are included.

In indirect quotations (when retelling, when presenting the thoughts of other authors in one’s own words), which provides significant text savings, one should be extremely accurate in presenting the author’s thoughts and correct in assessing the stated.

Quoting should not be either redundant or inadequate, since both reduce the level of scientific work: excessive quoting gives the impression of compilability of the work, and insufficient quoting if necessary to quote quotes from the sources used or at least reference to them reduces the scientific value of the job.

If it is necessary to express the attitude of the author of the dissertation work to individual words or thoughts of the quoted text, then after them an exclamation point or question mark is put, which is enclosed in parentheses.

If the author of the dissertation, giving a quotation, highlights some words in it, he should expressly state this. For example, the initials of the author of the dissertation are indicated, and the whole text is enclosed in parentheses.